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A Comprehensive Guide on Polkadot Bridges

The idea behind Web 3.0, the future version of the internet, is to develop a fully effective and user-friendly network where our identities and information are personal and properly stored from any centralized power owing to decentralized blockchain technology. According to this perspective, Polkadot was developed on the idea that there is no such thing as a perfect blockchain and that multichain technology is the way of the future.

Money transfers without needing a middleman or extra fees from banks are known benefits of decentralized finance. However, gas costs become prohibitive when moving coins between two decentralized platforms that use different consensus processes. It depends on how their respective consensus methods differ. Processing cross-chain transactions comes at a high gas cost. Cross-chain bridges were developed to solve the issue of excessive gas expenses in cross-chain operations. These bridges are crucial for fostering growth between various blockchains.

Polkadot can provide connectivity in a variety of methods through its parachains. Although not all blockchains are parachains, communication between chains must occur over a security gateway. Polkadot bridges are being used to enable the movement of transactions and the transmission of digital content from one network to another while utilizing a separate consensus mechanism.

Blockchain Bridges Explained

A blockchain bridge links two distinct blockchain networks or systems like real-world bridges. A “cross-chain bridge” is another name for a blockchain bridge, which can operate in many ways. Across layer 1 and layer 2 systems and various blockchain networks, it can enable the continuous transmission of records and data.

A blockchain bridge is the best way to ensure connectivity across various blockchain network types. It expands the possibility for applications developed on one blockchain to utilize those of another. Blockchain bridge initiatives are now in need as a result of the development and maturation of the system, which will enhance connectivity between various blockchain networks.

Most blockchain networks are composed of small, autonomous communities that have their ecosystems. Blockchain bridges are becoming one of the unavoidable requirements for the environment of decentralized applications. Decentralization, the fundamental tenet of blockchain technology, is constrained by the prohibition on relationships between two blockchain networks.

Blockchain bridges’ unique features and adaptations give a convincing picture of their significance for developing blockchain technology. Bridges present a possible method for fluidly switching between various blockchain networks. Along with the blockchain networks it connects, a blockchain bridge’s perks can also benefit shareholders and programmers. Blockchain bridges may present higher chances for user growth as well as additional chances for asset production and transfers.

Bridges on Polkadot

In the past, Polkadot was intended to serve as the essential framework for enabling cross-chain networking’s efficiency, connectivity, and reliability. It allowed several layer-1 parachains within the same ecosystem to collaborate. Another intriguing characteristic of the Polkadot is that it enables communication between any other non-parachain and a parachain. By utilizing blockchain bridges, it does this.


The Snowfork platform has created a multipurpose link between the Polkadot and the Ethereum blockchain. This bridge can move the ETH, ERC20 assets, and unstructured data from the Ethereum network to the Polkadot network. The overall bridge created by the Snowfork permits cross-chain cryptographic protocol operations in addition to financial transactions.


Darwinia is a system that serves as the cross-chain bridge center. It has developed a permissionless, single-parent bridge technology with effective cross-chain token decentralization at a reasonable cost. The Darwinia bridge technology also works on additional cross-chain transactions, like exchanges of cryptographic assets. This bridge incorporates technology like positive testing tools.


Between Bitcoin and Polkadot, the Interlay system has created a trustless bridge. It is currently operating in beta testnet mode. Users can utilize the bridge to create 1:1 Bitcoin-backed assets on the Polkadot ecosystem. Then, the newly created assets will be referred to as the PolkaBTC. Within the Polkadot ecosystem, PolkaBTC is available as a native resource that can be used with any application or parachain. For the decentralized finance of Polkadot, PolkaBTC assists in releasing the BTC value.

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The ChainBridge, an adaptable, asset-neutral, and multi-directional bridge, was created by Centrifuge in partnership with ChainSafe. Both exchangeable and non-fungible tokens can be moved between chains using the ChainBridge on the Centrifuge system.

Due to its flexible structure, ChainBridge enables other groups to use the platform to create bridges that connect their projects.


The platform to create an EOS network bridge is Bitfrost. This bridge enables permissionless cross-chain capital transactions by integrating small nodes on-chain and Merkle tree validation.


ChainX has already created a bridge connecting BTC and a substrate-based chain, a system for exchanging digital content that aims to connect to many networks. According to the ChainX bridge design, the auditors who own a share in the ChainX PoS consensus and a BTC multi-sig wallet utilize the bridge.

It’s time to look into the core strategies for blockchain bridging, knowing that we know the various bridge types produced on the Polkadot environment.

Methods of Blockchain Bridges


Bridge pallets are available for the chains built on substrates to help close the communication barrier between chains. A substrate pellet receives information sent to the Polkadot ecosystem by a non-parachain link. The substrate concept can then be applied to Polkadot as a community-run parachain or a framework parachain.

Smart Contracts

Choose the blockchain’s smart contracts to span the barrier if a certain chain isn’t operating on a given substrate. In the Ethereum network, for example, a smart bridging contract will start ETH transactions based on the Cross-chain Message Passing (XCMP) instructions that become collected. Due to blockchain networks and their smart contract capabilities, Polkadot may be connected to any other blockchain with the potential for smart contracts.

Higher Order Protocol

Higher-order protocols, like XCLAIM, can be used if no other bridging methods are available. Assets must secure any replaceable asset with a correspondingly larger value according to XCLAIM. Given that it lacks smart contracts and is a non-substrate network, Bitcoin illustrates a system suitable for higher-order protocols.

After learning about the bridging techniques, let’s see how to make the first substrate chain.

Creating Your First Substrate Chain

Substrates can be developed more easily using UNIX-based computer systems like macOS or Linux. Take the following steps to acquire the necessary tools on macOS or Linux:

  1. You need to start a command box on your desktop.
  2. Execute the relevant commands for your programming language after choosing your operating system:

Install Homebrew

Execute the command below to install Homebrew on macOS if it isn't already set up:

Install OpenSSL

After installing Homebrew, you need to install OpenSLL too. Follow the steps below to do so:

  • Open the link below and download the proper OpenSSL installation file depending on your operating system
  • Now, open that file and follow the self-explanatory steps
  • You’ll now need to set up environment variables to finalize the OpenSSL installation by following the sub-steps given below:
    1. Open My Computer's properties and select “Advanced System Settings”
    2. Next, click on “Environment Variables” and select “PATH”
    3. You’ll now see the OpenSSL file there. If not, click “New” and add the file path to proceed.
    4. Finish the installation by clicking on “OK”

Install Rust and Verify

Rust is a superb option for flat and integrated development because it is a low-level programming language that offers direct access to memory and machinery.

  • Execute the command that follows to first install rustup:
    curl sh.rustup.rs -sSf | sh
  • Execute the command below to instruct your existing shell to refresh your PATH environment variable to add the Cargo bin directory:
    source ~/.cargo/env
  • The following commands should now be executed to set up the Rust toolset to the most recent edition:
    rustup default stable
    rustup update
  • After that, add the nightly release and the nightly WebAssembly (wasm) targets by executing the following commands:
    /birustup update nightly
    rustup target add wasm32-unknown-unknown --toolchain nightly
  • By using the command prompt, you can check your deployment here:
    rustup --version
    rustup show

You’ve now completed the installation of RUST. Let’s now move to the creation of a Development environment

Setup a Development Environment

After completing the previous procedures, you are now capable of setting up a development environment on your computer system. Though you can still build a development environment with your tools, the Substrate Developer Hub offers templates to get you going.

Clone the GitHub Template

You may start creating on Substrate immediately due to the functional development environment provided by the Substrate node template.

  • You can clone the source for node templates that use the latest version branch by executing the command shown below:
    git clone https://github.com/substrate-developer-hub/substrate-node-template
  • You may go to the root of the node template path by executing the following command:
    cd substrate-node-template
    # We want to use the `latest` tag throughout all of this tutorial
    git checkout latest
  • Finalize cloning the node template by using the following command:
    cargo build --release

Install Node Modules and Start Substrate Node

You can utilize this frontend template to make user interfaces for your applications. Node.js and Yarn are needed for the frontend template. Install these tools first if you don’t have them yet.

  • Enter the following command to see if Node.js is set up on your local machine before installing the frontend template:
    node --version
    If the computer doesn't print the version number, you'll need to download and install Node, version 4, to proceed.
  • After that, use the following command to see if Yarn is set up on your local computer:
    yarn --version
  • If the command does not provide you with a version, use the following command to download and install Yarn:
    npm install -g yarn
  • After that, execute the following code to clone the frontend template repository:
    git clone https://github.com/substrate-developer-hub/substrate-front-end-template
  • To access the frontend template directory’s root, use the command line given below:
    cd substrate-front-end-template
    # We want to use the `latest` tag throughout all of this tutorial
    git checkout latest
  • Complete the frontend template's dependency installation by executing the following command:
    yarn install
  • You can experiment with the frontend template after your node has finished building.
    We'll need to open a terminal window, access the root folder where you built the Substrate node template, and then execute the command below to activate the node in development mode before we can start the local Substrate node:
    ./target/release/node-template --dev
  • Verify that your node is operational by looking at the results in the terminal. The terminal should produce the following outcome:
    verify terminal

Start the Development Server

To use the frontend template, open a new terminal window, go to the current directory in which the frontend template was installed, and then run the code shown below:

Launch your browser and go to localhost:8000 to examine the frontend template. An Account screening list is located in the top section, where users can select an account from which to perform on-chain actions. The upper portion of the template also shows details about the chain you are a link in.

You might also see that the frontend template has a balances column with several preexisting accounts, some of which already specified funds. Using the example data provided here, you can test with methods like fund transfers.

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Testing Transactions

You now have a blockchain node on your computer system and a frontend template for carrying out on-chain transactions, so you're set to try various ways to interact with the blockchain.

To test the transaction mechanism, we’re going to transfer funds to an account:

Look for the specified accounts in the Balances column that are empty, Look:

Under that same Balances table in the front, the template is also a Transfer feature. This element is used to transfer funds between accounts.

Simply copy and paste the address for the Dave account to determine the address to whom you are sending money. Select Submit after the transfer amount has reached at least 1000000000000.

The contents in the Balances table are changed as a result of the transfer:

Go to the Events component to see events related to the transfer that has been completed. Since the Substrate blockchain presents the outcomes of scheduled actions as events, you may use the Events features to discover specifics about each operation carried out as part of the transfer. An example would be:

You will see a success message that seems like the following when a transaction is finished and added to a block:


Deploying your first parachain on the Polkadot network is not a walkover, but if you give the process time and effort, you can deploy your parachain successfully. As a blockchain development company, our blockchain services company help with the entire Polkador parachain development process from downloading to installation, building, and deployment to POC2. Our experience in decentralized cross-chain solutions helps us build efficient parachains without lags or potential problems that can compromise the software.

Cross-chain bridges have emerged as the best method of dealing and transacting in contrast to traditional markets due to the DeFi industry's ongoing evolution. To enable different blockchains and shareholders, they offer connectivity and collaborative incorporation of decentralized applications, addressing the problem of money flow by lowering transaction costs for consumers. Bridges fill in the gaps between ecosystems, allowing traders to communicate with one another and enabling trading to expand beyond the confines of a single substrate chain or parachain.

To get to this point, we have to define Blockchain bridges, polkadot bridges, their types, and their methods. Following that, we gave you detailed instructions on how to build your first substrate chain. Now that you are completely informed, we hope you are prepared to create your blockchain substrate.

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