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NEAR is a user-friendly and carbon-neutral blockchain created from the ground up to be efficient, secure, and infinitely expandable. Its development began with the goal of making the blockchain user-friendly and carbon-neutral. In addition to that, a user-friendly interface was developed for it.
Software developers can host serverless applications and smart contracts with this protocol, which enables them to connect to open-finance networks and reap the benefits of an ecosystem of reusable smart contracts. This is done with the intention of connecting to open-finance networks.
The ease of use was a primary consideration in Near protocol development, which is a layer one, sharded, proof-of-stake network. This is the one technological aspect that sets it apart from the rest.
The concept of sharding serves as the driving force behind the architecture and design of the NEAR Protocol. Sharding is a technique that divides the design of a network into several different nodes to reduce the amount of computational strain placed on the system. Each node on the platform is accountable for managing a specific number of the platform's transactions. The data can be quickly recovered and scaled up on a decentralized network because of the partitioning of network nodes, which substitutes the practice of having every node run the code for the network. This allows for easy retrieval and scaling of the data.
The NEAR web application's front and back ends are two separate yet distinct components of the protocol.
The use of smart contracts requires the disclosure of ways that aid consumers in "viewing" and "changing" their status. This is a need that was imposed by the usage of smart contracts.
We can communicate not only with our contracts but also with the contracts that other people have deployed in a manner akin to that of cloud API. This may be done with the assistance of the near-api-js Quickstart and the Code Snippets provided within the program.
Following are prominent tools or languages used in Near protocol for its functioning.
A computer language known as Rust, which functions as a shell and contributes to the language's overall increased level of security, might be used to write a high-value smart contract.
In addition to a mainnet, the NEAR Platform contains a testnet, which acts as a location for us to run our private network. The mainnet is where all of the action happens. If we want to call the smart contract from the same network on which it was deployed, we will need to check our setup when we are deploying, testing, and calling the smart contract. If we do this, we can contact the smart contract from the same network. The type of network on which the smart contract was initially launched will determine the current status of the smart contract.
On the NEAR platform, users of decentralized apps (dApps) have access to a user interface that is not just powerful but also very sophisticated. It has evolved as one of the most successful digital market ecosystems because the way it works is such that it is not harmful to the natural world. It is simpler to collect data and grow dApps on devices that employ DeFi thanks to the sharding strategy, which is the mechanism that NEAR is founded. The goal of the NEAR protocol is to clear the way for the mainstream adoption of web 3.0 by removing the barriers that now prevent this from happening. Transactions are finished in a short amount of time, and the processing expenses connected with them are kept to a minimum.
The voting technique utilized for elections on the NEAR blockchain is known as the Threshold Proof-of-Stake voting system (TPoS). By leveraging the TPoS, NEAR creates a mechanism to enlist the participation of a large number of individuals. This is done so that the blockchain ecosystem may continue to operate regularly. This leads to an increased degree of decentralization across the blockchain network, which, in turn, results in an improved level of network safety.
Now that we have your attention, we will discuss the processes of creating, testing, and carrying out a smart contract based on the NEAR Protocol. An example of a plain smart contract is provided in this section. Following are the necessities to deploy smart contracts on the Near protocol.
To install Rustup, go out the steps outlined in the following command:
To complete the configuration of your current shell, you will need to input the following command:
After that, the WASM target should be integrated into the blockchain network.
You can sign up for a NEAR account by utilizing the NEAR wallet.
Carry out the procedures described in the following paragraphs to successfully install the near-cli.
Utilizing a package manager such as the nvm will allow you to successfully install npm and node, then Check to see if the newest versions of npm and NodeJS have been installed on your machine.
You may install the near-cli on a global basis if you run the following line of code: npm install -g near-cli
Installing the Windows Subsystem for Linux, often known as WSL, must first be done. After finishing that, you need to install the Node.js software. After that, you need to change the directory that npm uses by default.
Click on WSL, and then type the following command into the console to install near-cli on every machine in the system: -g near-cli
Cargo may be utilized to assist in the process of launching a fresh project repository. For you to achieve this, you will first need to navigate back to the directory containing the projects, and then you will need to run the following commands:
The actions being carried out on your computer will result in the production of the rust-counter-tutorial directory. If you so desire, you might refer to this particular file as the rust-counter-tutorial project file. The directories that Cargo creates will have names similar to those of the directories they are placed in. A file with the name Cargo.toml will be produced, as well as a src directory that will contain the main.rs file, and a new directory will also be created.
You can find the code for NEAR smart contracts in the main file, which can be found at./src/lib.rs. This is the usual name that is given to files that are contained within the Rust library. Because of the libraries, both the compilation of the WebAssembly code and the deployment of the blockchain go off without a hitch.
After clicking on the link, you must use your chosen text editor to access the Cargo.toml file. Tam's Obvious Minimal Language, sometimes known as TOML, is an example of an open-source programming language, which is the format used to save the file. The file that stores Cargo's configuration utilizes the TOML format, the same format as the file that stores package.json. The following step is to modify the whole contents of the Cargo.toml file following the directives provided below:
Use a text editor to write the contents of the./src/lib.rs file. The contents of the lib.rs file should be copied and pasted. This particular instance uses the lib.rs file in addition to the smart contract logic provided by a struct, the functions provided by a struct, and the unit tests. When you perform the command shown below, all of this information will be contained within a single file.
Now, we will examine some of the codes above in further detail to better comprehend what each of these codes entails.
The portion of the Cargo.toml file, known as the dependencies, gets updated with all package names specified following the use declaration. To get everything ready for the blockchain, all the imports are serialized to organize the code and storage locations. This is done so that the blockchain may be used.
The following passages are taken from the lib.rs file and are presented here for your convenience:
To make use of the struct oj NEAR, perform the commands that are detailed down below:
Because of these instructions, it is now feasible to build in WebAssemble in a manner that is compatible with the NEAR Protocol and highly optimized for it.
The unit tests will start execution at the position that has been given and will continue in this manner throughout the whole of the lib.rs file.
After that, you will be responsible for developing a test for yourself. The following are some of the scenarios in which the specialized code for unit testing that you build will be utilized:
After compiling the smart contract through its paces, the next step is creating a WASM release binary. This is done after the smart contract has been put through its paces.
Carry out some cargo-based tests on the smart contract code.
After that, the formats of output that are listed below will be delivered to you:
When you are certain that all of the tests have been completed and passed successfully, you can proceed with compiling the smart contract.
You are almost there; start deploying your smart contract by using the newly compiled.wasm file. During the process of deployment, both the near-cli and the testnet that are linked with your NEAR account will be utilized.
The Near protocol provides a number of smart contract development services and resources for smart contract developers looking for Smart contract development on the Near platform such as documentation, testnet and community.
During the creation of NEAR, both the developers and the users emphasized the program's capacity to function well while still being easy to use. The NEAR Protocol is one of the most outstanding implementations of blockchain technology. It focuses on finding answers to difficulties with scalability and offers incentives for networks to design and deploy decentralized apps within the ecosystem of decentralized financial systems. In the context of the ecosystem of decentralized financial systems, this happens. By staking and sharding on the network's platform, it is possible to make a profit with the NEAR Protocol. Problems that once existed, such as poor speed, restricted throughput, and little compatibility with other chains, are now resolved due to its implementation.
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