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Understanding the Blockchain Layers Hierarchy: Layer 1, Layer 2 and Layer 3  


Blocks are sets of records that are used to store information on the blockchain, which is a distributed ledger. Blocks are referred to as "blocks." Each block has a certain amount of usable storage space; when that capacity is exhausted, the block in question is sealed off and linked to the one that came before it in the stack. After every new piece of information is entered, it is assembled into its own distinct block, and this block is then added to the chain that is already present. Each transaction that takes place on the blockchain is given its own "block" of data that is used to record it. The blockchain is used to record "smart contracts," which are agreements that adhere to a preset set of criteria and are then automatically carried out. certain blockchains, including Ethereum blockchain development or Solana blockchain development, support a robust ecosystem of Layer three applications.

Scaling techniques such as the Lightning Network, Polygon, and Starknet are all considered to be part of Layer two. The great majority of the scaling options that are currently available for Layer two include the use of cryptographic technologies. If you are interested in learning more about the cryptography that lies at the foundation of zero-knowledge proofs, I strongly suggest that you contact us as we provide our service in polygon blockchain development. The ability to route traffic is the feature that most obviously distinguishes Layers 2 and 3 from one another.

As professionals in the field of hire ethereum developer, we are able to teach you anything from the fundamentals to advanced techniques concerning the LAYER 1, LAYER 2, AND LAYER 3 BLOCKCHAINS. The blockchain is a decentralized ledger that organizes records into groups of "blocks," which are then referred to as storing information. Each block has a certain amount of usable storage space; when that capacity is exhausted, the block in question is sealed off and linked to the one that came before it in the stack. After every new piece of information is entered, it is assembled into its own distinct block, and this block is then added to the chain that is already present. Each transaction that takes place on the blockchain is given its own "block" of data that is used to record it. The blockchain is used to record "smart contracts," which are agreements that adhere to a preset set of criteria and are then automatically carried out.

In today's world, the blockchain industry is well-known. Apart from financial pending data transaction fees, it is advocated for various commercial uses of blockchain scalability. It enhances security and facilitates information flow while maintaining the openness of the blockchain network processes.

A critical distinction between a traditional database of the underlying protocol of an underlying blockchain protocol scalability is to organized data processing load. Each block contains a collection of data. Blockchain platforms contain a limited amount of storage and, high transaction fees when filled, are closed and connected to the preceding exciting protocols, producing a data processing load chain dubbed the blockchain security. All subsequent information is assembled into newly created blockchain networks, which are subsequently added to the chain after it is filled in a centralized system and solves cryptographic algorithms.

A database is often structured around tables, but as the name indicates, blockchain scalability is structured around chunks (blocks) of data connection. When implemented decentralized, this data structure automatically creates an irreversible timeline of data from a centralized system. When a block is full, it becomes a permanent fixture in this timeline.

What is a Blockchain?

Blockchain is a decentralized network, immutable ledger technology that streamlines the processes of a high transaction of existing protocols, confirming transaction records, and monitoring assets within a corporate network. A tangible asset (a home, a vehicle, cash, or land) or an intangible asset (intellectual property, patents, copyrights, branding). Almost everything of value can be recorded and exchanged on a blockchain platform,  underlying blockchain architecture which mitigates risk and lowers costs for only the participants.

Business is information-driven. The sooner and more precise it is received, the faster high the transaction fees are. Blockchain technology is excellent for distributing node information. It allows for faster transaction, instant, shared, and entirely transparent data storage on an immutable ledger that can be accessed only by network users with certain permissions for the visa process. A blockchain industry can track orders, VisaNet electronic payment network, accounts, and production, among other things. Additionally, because members share a single version of the truth, you can see the entirety of a contract from start to finish with increased confidence and additional efficiencies and possibilities.

Blockchain's key components

blockchain development

The technology of the distributed ledger

Every member of the network has accessibility to the distributed nodes ledger and its unchangeable record of faster transactions. Transactions fee capacity is recorded just once using this shared ledger, avoiding the duplication of effort associated with traditional commercial blockchain platforms or solve cryptographic algorithms.

Records that cannot be modified

If a transaction capacity contains a mistake, a new entire transaction set must be added to rectify the problem, at which point both transactions capacity become accessible.

Contracts de rigueur

A set of rules dubbed smart contracts is saved and performed automatically on the bitcoin blockchain platforms to expedite faster transaction speeds and parties processing transactions. Smart contracts may be used to set the terms of corporate bond entire transaction speed and the terms of payment of parties processing transactions speed for travel insurance.

The operation of the blockchain

Each record is captured in the form of a data "block."

These authenticating transaction speeds reflect the transfer of an asset, which may be tangible (a product) or intangible (a service) (intellectual). Each blockchain trilemma is linked to the blockchain trilemma immediately preceding and following it.

As an asset transfer between locations or ownership changes hands, these blocks create a data chain. The blocks verify the precise timing and sequence of transaction record

and they are securely linked together to prevent any blockchain trilemma from being edited or added between two existing bitcoin blocks.

A blockchain is a sequence of the irreversible transaction records.

Each subsequent block reinforces the previous block's verification and the whole blockchain. It makes the bitcoin blockchain impenetrable to tampering, hence giving the critical property of immutability. It eliminates the risk of manipulation by a bad party — and creates a trusted ledger of network transactions speed.

Now that you're familiar with some of the fundamental terms specialists use to define accessible protocols, you're ready to learn about existing protocols that are beginning to gain traction in today's business world. It is critical to note that while there are hundreds of processing computing power protocols available, examining the entire list would take an excessive amount of time. However, five essential protocols stand out, and an outline of the primary protocols frequently utilized in bitcoin Blockchain development services is included below.

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1. Hyperledger 

Hyperledger is an accessible initiative to develop a suite of tools to assist organizations swiftly and successfully deploying Blockchain technology and maintain security breaches. The protocol is frequently utilized in Blockchain technology solutions because it includes libraries that development aid. The Linux Foundation is an outspoken proponent of Hyperledger and has contributed considerable expertise to expedite the protocol's development. Additionally, Hyperledger development is compatible with Linux, allowing it to operate efficiently on the same servers extensively utilized in today's commercial lighting network increase and maintaining security.

2. Multi chains

Multichain was founded to assist for-profit businesses in establishing private Blockchains to promote more efficient cheaper and faster transactions and enable the development of new applications for the proof-of-work methods upon which Blockchain technologies are based. Multichain may provide an API that Blockchain development services can utilize to expedite integration and accelerate deployment as a private enterprise. What differentiates Multichain from its competitors is its ability to coexist with fiat currencies and tangible repositories of value. By contrast, most cryptocurrency initiatives are geared toward the eventual abolition of physical money in favor of digital mediums of exchange.

3. Ethereum for Enterprise

Ethereum provides a business-oriented version of its software. Ethereum Enterprise's mission is to expand the business applications of Blockchain software development. Businesses can swiftly construct large-scale value exchange apps with Ethereum Enterprise. The primary advantage of Ethereum Enterprise is that it enables enterprises to construct bespoke Ethereum variations while still utilizing the most recent Ethereum technology. Under normal conditions, Ethereum's license makes it impossible for corporations to create proprietary variations of the program; however, the corporate edition circumvents this restriction.


Corda is a rival to Multichain, offering an enterprise-focused protocol. Most Corda applications have been created in the financial and banking industry. However, Corda's technology may create a wide variety of unique Blockchain trilemma. Corda has been approved by the R3 banking consortium, making it an excellent alternative for developing Blockchain solutions for the finance industry.


As is the case with many major protocols, Quorum aims to assist organizations in the finance sector. Quorum is noteworthy since it has the financial community's full support. For example, J.P. Morgan Chase is the protocol's principal financial sponsor, and it has garnered extra funding from other major institutions. However, Quorum has remained an open-source project that anybody may use. Quorum is also inextricably linked to Ethereum, as the project began by changing the Ethereum source code.

Blockchain Scalability

In blockchain technology, "scaling" refers to a rise in the system's throughput rate, expressed in transactions speed per second. With the increased acceptance of cryptocurrencies in daily life, blockchain layers two solutions have become necessary to improve lighting network increases security, recordkeeping, and other scaling solution services.

The rate at which a system processes transactions per second is called "throughput." 

The blockchain is the fundamental building component of a decentralized ecosystem. It consists of three layers: Layer 1, Layer 2, and layer 3. Layer 2 is a third-party integration that works in concert with network Layer 1 to increase the number of distribution nodes and hence the decentralized system throughput. Numerous Layer 2 solutions are being adopted at the moment. These decentralized systems automate transaction speed through the use of smart contracts and scaling solutions.

As Bitcoin becomes a major force in the business sector, blockchain developers strive to widen the scope of blockchain administration.

Transaction Fee of a Blockchain Network

The blockchain fee is a cost associated with bitcoin transaction costs levied on users. The charge is collected for the network to complete the authenticating transactions.

You must pay the blockchain charge to ensure that your bitcoin transactions arrive on schedule. The blockchain fee is one of the primary strategies used to accelerate crypto authenticating transactions, frequently delayed due to the blockchain network's high congestion level. The smaller the blockchain cost, the lower the priority of your transaction in the blockchain.

The transaction capacity has always been an integral feature of most blockchain decentralized systems. You've certainly encountered them while transferring, depositing, or withdrawing cryptocurrencies.

Most cryptocurrencies use transaction capacity for two critical reasons. To begin, fees help mitigate the quantity of spam on the network. Additionally, it renders large-scale spam assaults prohibitively expensive to execute. Second, transaction capacity rewards users who assist in verifying and validating automated transactions. Consider it a prize for assisting the network.

While transaction costs are generally low for most blockchains, they can become highly expensive depending on network activity. As a user, the fee amount you specify impacts the order in which your transaction is included in the next block—the bigger the confirmation cost, the faster the procedure.

As the world's first network, Bitcoin established the pending transaction that is now employed by a large number of cryptocurrencies. Satoshi Nakamoto recognized those pending data transactions might help safeguard the network from large-scale spam assaults while incentivizing good conduct.

Layer 1 Blockchains Explained

 Layer 0

Blockchain layer 0 is made up of parts that contribute to the reality of blockchain. It is the technology that enables the operation of Bitcoin, Ethereum, and other blockchain networks. The internet, connections, and hardware that enable layer 1 to operate smoothly are considered Layer 0 components.

 Layer 1

It is the foundation layer, and the immutability of this Layer 1 guarantees its security. When persons mention Ethereum, they refer to the Ethereum network or Layer one. This Layer 1 is responsible for consensus procedures, programming languages, block time, dispute resolution, and the rules and parameters governing a blockchain network's fundamental operation. Additionally, it is referred to as the implementation layer. Bitcoin is an example of a blockchain with only one Layer.

Layer one issues

When combined, these scaling solutions strategies increase the network's throughput. However, as the number of blockchain users grows, it looks as though Layer one is falling short.

Solutions that are possible

Proof-of-stake is a new consensus algorithm that Ethereum 2.0 will use for the consensus mechanism. This consensus mechanism verifies new transaction data blocks using network users' staking collateral, resulting in a more efficient operation.

Layer 2 Blockchains Explained

 layer 2

L2 solutions are overlapping networks that lie on top of the base layer. Protocols use Layer two to boost scalability by eliminating base layer interactions. As a result, consensus mechanism smart contracts running on the principal blockchain protocol handle just deposits and withdrawals and verify that off-chain transactions adhere to regulatory requirements.

Thus, what is the distinction between Layer one and Layer two blockchain technology? The blockchain is the fundamental building component of a decentralized ecosystem. Layer 1 is a third-party integration mechanism in concert with Layer one to increase the number of nodes and hence the decentralized system throughput. Numerous Layer two blockchain solutions are currently being implemented.

Scaling solutions on two levels

Layer two protocols have risen in popularity in recent years, and they are proving to be the most successful method for scaling solutions PoW networks in specific.

The blockchain that is nested

A layer two blockchain is a base layer of a blockchain system built on top of another. Layer one defines the parameters, whereas Layer two executes the operations. On a single mainchain, many base layer blockchain levels may exist. Consider the following example of a typical business structure of nested blockchain.

Rather than having a single person (for example, the manager) perform all of the work, the manager delegated assignments to subordinates, who subsequently reported back to management when completed of nested blockchain.

Channels of state

State channels increase the capacity and processing speed of total transactions by enabling two-way communication between blockchain systems and off-chain transactional channels via various techniques. The miner does not need to be active immediately to validate a party's processing power transactions through state channels.


A side-chain is a transactional chain that operates concurrently with the blockchain protocols and processes huge data. Side-chains have their consensus process, tuned for processing speed and scalability. A utility coin is typically used to facilitate data movement between the side and main chains and state channels.

Side-chains differ significantly from state channels in various respects. First, side-chain transactions are not confidential between participants; rather, they are publicly recorded on the ledger. Additionally, side-chain do not affect security breach mainchains or other side-chains. Constructing a side-chain from scratch requires a great amount of time and effort.


Rollups are Layer two blockchain scaling solutions that enable transactions outside the Layer and upload to the Layer two blockchain protocols. Because the data is on the base layer, layer one can keep rollups safe.

Two different rollup security models

Rollups benefit users by increasing transaction throughput, enabling open participation, and lowering gas costs.

Let's build together on Layer 1

Layer 3 Blockchains Explained

The application layer is frequently referred to as layer 3. It is a layer that hosts decentralized networks applications (DApps) and the protocols that allow them. While certain blockchains, including Ethereum or Solana (SOL), support a robust ecosystem of Layer three applications, Bitcoin is not suited to host them.

As these, layer 2 solutions deviate the most from the Bitcoin core network at the moment. Certain projects are attempting to integrate DApp capabilities into the Bitcoin ecosystem through forks of the original Bitcoin network.

For instance, CakeDeFi is a Defi application that provides BTC coin holders with staking, lending, and liquidity mining services. CakeDeFi is built on the DeFiChain fork of Bitcoin. While DeFiChain retains an "anchor" to the primary Bitcoin network for certain activities, it is still technically a distinct blockchain.

According to some industry experts, the absence of DApp capability is one of the most significant drawbacks of BTC. Since the introduction of Ethereum in 2015, layer 3 platforms have seen rapid growth in popularity and value. At the moment, Ethereum has almost 3,000 blockchain layers of 3 applications.

Another significant blockchain, Solana, contains around 500 layer 3 DApps and the network's Defi applications have a combined worth of close to $15 billion.

By contrast, BTC lacks a functional application that might be easily classified as a layer 3 application. There is a continuous discussion about whether initiatives to " forcibly integrate" DApp features into BTC are worthwhile. According to some in the industry, BTC will always be a network optimized for crypto money transactions, not DApps.

These individuals point out that the layer 1 BTC chain now has an industry-leading market cap ($1.3 trillion), dwarfing the aggregate TVL and market cap of all Layer 3 enterprises. Based on the financial numbers, Bitcoin may not be in desperate need of Layer 3 capabilities.

Differences Between Layer 1 Layer 2 and Layer 3 Blockchains

The cost of mining and transferring on the Ethereum Layer 1 blockchain varies daily but is often between $50 and $125. (USD). Meanwhile, the cost of minting and transferring coins on the Polygon Layer 2 lightning network is roughly $0.05, a factor of 2,000 lower than on the Layer 1 blockchain.

It indicates that Layer 2 blockchains are significantly less expensive than Layer 1 blockchains, owing to their more efficient architectures.

While Layer 1 and Layer 2 blockchains are frequently inefficient due to antiquated Layer 1 consensus methods, this is expected to change as more first-generation and next-generation blockchains use PoS and other more efficient models. More efficient algorithms and designs have a lower environmental effect and improve transaction efficiency.

Finally, when it comes to Layer two protocols, it's worth noting that not all of these alternative scaling solutions choices are created equal, and there is no universal definition of a layer-2 crypto network. For example, while Lightning Network transactions do not provide the same level of censorship resistance and security as on-chain transactions, the guarantees provided by the Lightning Network are far stronger than those provided by traditional, centralized transaction servers.

While some consider pending transactions on centralized exchanges to be Layer two networks since they enable users to swap custody of coins off-chain, others have considerably stricter requirements for a platform to operate as a simple layer-2 cryptosystem.

The fact remains that users may opt into multiple decentralized systems on a block based on their demands, and this multi-layer approach to scaling is the critical lesson when it comes to comprehending bitcoin networks' higher tiers.

Similarities Between Layer 1 Layer 2 and Layer 3 Blockchains

A layer-1 network, on the other hand, is the ultimate arbiter of facts and is in charge of transaction settlement. This entails keeping track of a user's account or wallet, using asymmetric key pairs and the associated blockchain layers or token balances for most blockchain networks.

Each layer one network has its native token, which grants access to its resources. You utilize a network's native token to pay for communication networks like transmitting bitcoin, minting tokens, or invoking a smart contract. Not all Layer one networks support the same set of services, even though they all offer transactions. When comparing blockchain Layer one networks, it is critical to understand their consensus method and the advantages and disadvantages they provide. Generally, the consensus methods involved trade-off security breaches, processing speed, and decentralization. Consensus mechanisms have seen a great deal of innovation and are an area that is continually expanding and adding to the current variety of distributed nodes ledgers. Certain networks start with blockchain Layer one security and decentralization and then delegate speed to Layer two solutions.

As with Layer 1 networks, each layer 2 network congestion will provide a scaling solution or a mechanism for rerouting to confirm transaction records to its Layer 1 network. For example, one often mentioned method for layer 2 scaling is zero-knowledge rollups. The concept is that a side-chain orders and processes transactions and then offer mathematical proof that they did so fairly. The Lightning Network, Polygon, and Starknet are Layer two scaling methods. The vast majority of options for scaling Layer two are cryptographic. I recommend this site for further information on the cryptography underlying zero-knowledge proofs. A verifier creates mathematical proof that given information is valid in a simplified explanation. The primary distinction between Layer 2 and Layer 3 is their routing capabilities. A Layer 2 switch is only concerned with MAC addresses and is unconcerned with IP addresses or other higher-layer information. Layer 3 switches, also known as multi-layer switches, may perform all of the functions of Layer 2 switches while also providing static and dynamic routing. A Layer 3 switch maintains both a MAC address database and an IP routing table and is responsible for inter-VLAN communication and packet routing between distinct VLANs.

Additionally, a layer 2+ (Layer 3) switch is available that merely provides static routing. Apart from routing packets, Layer 3 switches offer features that need an understanding of the IP address of data entering the switch, such as automatically tagging VLAN traffic based on the IP address rather than manually specifying a port. Layer 3 switches are enhanced in computing power and security to meet customer requirements.

Consider their intended usage when deciding whether to loiter between Layer 2 and Layer 3 switches. If your domain is entirely Layer 2, you can use a Layer 2 switch. Because the hosts are connected in a pure Layer 2 domain, a Layer 2 switch will function properly. In network topology, this is referred to as the access layer. A Layer 3 switch is required if the switch is required to aggregate several access switches and perform inter-VLAN routing. In network security topology, this is referred to as the distribution layer.

We Can Help You Build Projects on All Blockchains

We can help you build your project on any blockchain or Layer."

  • Ethereum development
  • Polygon development
  • Solana development 


Blockchain is a ledger that stores data in groupings known as blocks. Blocks contain a limited amount of storage and, when filled, are closed and connected to the preceding block. All subsequent information is assembled into a newly created block subsequently added to the chain. The operation of the blockchain is captured in the form of a data "block." A set of rules dubbed smart contracts are saved and performed automatically on the blockchain. Multichain may provide an API that businesses can use to expedite integration and accelerate deployment as a private enterprise. Corda is a rival to Multichain, offering an enterprise-focused protocol for the finance industry. Quorum aims to assist organizations in the finance sector. As Bitcoin becomes a major force in the business sector, developers strive to widen the scope of blockchain administration.

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We’ll work with you to develop a true ‘MVP’ (Minimum Viable Product). We will “cut the fat” and design a lean product that has only the critical features.

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Designing a successful product is a science and we help implement the same Product Design frameworks used by the most successful products in the world (Ethereum, Solana, Hedera etc.)

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In an industry where being first to market is critical, speed is essential. Rejolut's rapid prototyping framework(RPF) is the fastest, most effective way to take an idea to development. It is choreographed to ensure we gather an in-depth understanding of your idea in the shortest time possible.

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